- Background information
Lead -The effective news lead meets two requirements. It captures the essence of the event, and it gives the reader the sense of the story to follow .The lead sentence usually contains one idea and follows the subject verb object sentence structure for clarity. It should not exceed 35 words.
Accuracy – generally in news intro it is short and simple. However, it must be accurate and precise when giving the full details later in the story
Filtration -three possible ways:
- first hand account- if the story is based on direct observation of the event by the reporter.
- second hand-if the story is based on account passed by a participant or a witness.
- third hand account- if the story is based on information supplied by a source who was told by a participant.
Attribution -Attribution is stating who said something. Attribution is essential in all the media, including radio and television. Journalists do it so that your readers or listeners can know who is speaking or where the information in the story comes from.
Verification – names, address ,background information
Fairness – results from a few simple practices:
- No story is fair if it omits facts of major importance or significance. so fairness includes completeness .
- No story is fair if it includes essentially irrelevant information at the expense of significant facts. so fairness includes relevance.
- No story is fair if it consciously or unconsciously misleads or even deceives the reader .so fairness includes honesty.
- No story is fair if reporters hide their biases or emotions behind such subtly pejorative words as “refused” ,”despite”, “admit ” “massive” ,so fairness requires straight forwardness a head of flashiness.
Objectivity – stories are objective when they can be checked against some kind of record.
background information- to summaries the issue briefly to bring audience or viewers up to date We give information called background. One or two paragraphs of well-written background details must be included in the body of news story, so that it makes complete sense
Clarity-enhanced by simplicity: short sentence, short words, coherence and logical story structure
What essence of news value is it?
- Impact – events that are likely to affect many people
- Timeliness – events that are immediate, recent
- Prominence -†events involving well known people or institutions.
- Proximity – people are interested in and affected by activities close at hand.
- Conflict – events that reflect clashes between people or institutions.
- Currency – events and situations that are being talked about .it is an idea whose time has come.
- Bizarre – events that deviate sharply from the expected and the experiences of every day life.
What sort of news?
- SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS